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There are many different types of fibers that can be used to reinforce polymer matrix composites. The most common reinforcement materials are carbon fiber and glass fiber. You can choose different fiber materials according to the final application.
Natural fiber (linen, linen, cotton yarn, etc.)
1. Low cost, low density (~1.5 g/cm3), light and green
2. The fiber content is higher than glass fiber
3. Long-life biodegradability
Since the 1990s, natural fiber composite materials have emerged in many applications. Because of their lower cost and lower density, they are particularly attractive in automotive applications. Natural fibers, especially polypropylene composite materials, have attracted more attention due to their additional advantages of recyclability.
1. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber
2. Compared with carbon fiber, the elongation at break is higher
3. It is more fragile than carbon fiber and has lower wear resistance
4. Humidity resistance
5. Chemical resistance to acids and solvents
6. Low dielectric constant
7. Electrical insulation (usually considered as an advantage)
8. Thermal conductivity
9. It is more widely used in conventional industries than carbon fiber
The non-renewable energy required for glass fiber production is 5 to 10 times that of natural fiber production.
It has better mechanical properties than natural fiber, but not as strong as carbon fiber. The problem of low stiffness can be easily overcome by designing a sandwich structure. In this structure, a lightweight core can be sandwiched between two glass skins to make the final result harder.
There are many grades of glass fiber, the most commonly used is E grade, while R and S grades have better mechanical properties and higher prices.
03 carbon fiber
1. Lightweight and high rigidity
2. Iron is about 1/4 of the space gravity, and aluminum is about 2/3 of the space gravity
3. Higher rigidity and strength than iron (and also higher than glass fiber)
4. More than 3 times the tensile modulus of glass fiber
5. High thermal conductivity
6. Low thermal expansion coefficient
7. Excellent wear resistance
8. The cost is about 10 times that of glass fiber
10. Used in high-end areas
Compared with thermoset composites, carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites have easy processing and recycling convenience, so they have attracted much attention.
Applications: Aerospace, construction and civil engineering, sports, auto parts
04 basalt fiber
1. Long fatigue life
2. The cost is lower than carbon fiber
3. Better physical and mechanical properties than glass fiber
Basalt fiber is made of very fine basalt fiber, and its physical and mechanical properties are better than glass fiber. It is suitable for aerospace and automotive parts, and has become an emerging cost-effective alternative to traditional glass and carbon fiber
05HMW PE fiber with high strength and modulus (high molecular weight)
1. Strong acid resistance
2. Wear resistance
3. Low moisture absorption rate
HMW is also called UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) or HMPE (High Modulus Polyethylene). HWM PE has the strongest impact resistance among existing thermoplastics
06 Aramid fiber
1. High strength, high elastic modulus and high wear resistance
2. Strong heat resistance
3. Excellent strength and weight characteristics
4. High string modulus
5. High toughness
6. Low creep
7. Low elongation at break (~3.5%)
8. Difficult to dye (usually solution dyeing)
Aramids are synthetic fibers made from the polymer aramid. According to the different positions of chemical bonds, it is mainly divided into meta-aramid and para-aramid. The tensile strength of para-aramid is better.
Thermoplastic resin is a polymer compound that becomes soft or fluid when heated, and then returns to its original solid state when cooled. It is usually used for injection molding. Thermoplastic resin products have strong chemical resistance. Most of them have hard, crystalline or rubbery surfaces
High impact strength
High ductility and low friction
Low hardness and rigidity
Softer and tougher than most commercial resins
Higher stiffness and strength than PE resin
Excellent tensile strength and impact strength
Decreased toughness in cold conditions
▼ PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)
High chemical resistance
Water and abrasion resistance
UV exposure should be avoided
PVC is the third most widely used plastic in the world due to its versatility, durability and cost competitiveness. It is especially needed during the construction process, and its purpose is to achieve lightness, durability and maintenance-free.
Hardness: PP> PVC> LDPE
Excellent dimensional stability
Low moisture absorption rate
PPS is an engineering plastic commonly used as a high-performance thermoplastic.
High chemical resistance
High hardness, stiffness and strength
Excellent fatigue resistance and stress crack resistance
Similar to PPS fiber, PEEK is also a semi-crystalline thermoplastic with excellent mechanical and chemical resistance. This is an advanced new material with higher toughness. At the same time, it is also more expensive and harder to process.
▼ PC polycarbonate (plastic/resin)
Excellent transparency and self-extinguishing
High impact resistance, low scratch resistance
Unlike most thermoplastics, polycarbonate can withstand greater plastic deformation without cracking or cracking. It is commonly used in car interiors and exteriors.
▼ ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)
Heat resistance, impact resistance and toughness
Excellent electrical insulation properties
Easy to machine, sand, glue and paint, it is an excellent material for making prototypes
Poor weather resistance
Poor solvent resistance
Produces a lot of smoke when burning
Since ABS is used in combination with 3 kinds of monomers, its quality and final performance depend to a large extent on the processing method and the ratio of these components.
Polyamide resins are commonly used in automobile parts, sporting goods and mechanical parts.
Due to the three-dimensional connected (cross-linked) network, thermoset plastics are generally stronger than thermoplastic materials and are also more suitable for high-temperature applications. In addition, the cost of thermosetting resins is lower than that of thermoplastics.
▼Polyester (PET / PBT)
Low cost, low viscosity and relatively short curing time
Sufficient resistance to water and many chemical substances
Good wettability to glass fiber
Lower mechanical properties than other thermosetting plastics
Strong styrene odor
Polyester resin is the most widely used resin, especially in the marine and automotive industries.
Excellent mechanical properties and toughness
Excellent wear resistance
Good chemical resistance, oil resistance and solvent resistance
Stronger than ordinary resin and more recyclable
Epoxy resins have a wide range of applications, including metal coatings, high-voltage electrical insulators, fiber-reinforced plastic materials and structural adhesives.
There are many grades of epoxy resins, such as bisphenol F epoxy resin, bisphenol A epoxy resin, novolac epoxy resin, alicyclic epoxy resin and so on.
▼ PETG (polyethylene terephthalate)
Excellent thermosetting properties
High toughness (15-20 times higher than PMMA)
High weather resistance
Easy to process
Cheaper than PC resin
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